Ugaritic

Typesetting Adventures

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ugaritic

Typing characters that are not on the standard keyboard can be done if you are willing and able to: (a) create your own custom keyboard layouts; or (b) wait for someone else to (for a fee) upgrade and enhance their word processor program to cater for the new characters; or (c) use Latex (in particular, xelatex) and define your own mnemonic macros and then use them in your essay/report/thesis/paper.

e.g.,

\newcommand\ualpa{πŽ€}
\newcommand\ubeta{𐎁}
\newcommand\ugamla{πŽ‚}

And macros within macros, to your heart’s content.

***

Here’s an example tex document, showing how the image snippet at the start was created. (You’ll need Noto Sans Ugaritic font, or similar, to display the Ugaritic characters – they are in Unicode).

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage{fontspec}

\setmainfont{Cambria}

\usepackage{xcolor}

\newcommand\ugafonta{Aegean}

\newcommand\ugafontb{Andagii}

\newcommand\ugafontc{Code2003}

\newcommand\ugafontd{FreeSans}

\newcommand\ugafonte{K1FS}

\newcommand\ugafontf{MPH 2B Damase}

\newcommand\ugafontg{Noto Sans Ugaritic}

\newcommand\ugafonth{Quivira.otf}

\newfontface{\uga}{\ugafonta}

\newfontface{\ugb}{\ugafontb}

\newfontface{\ugc}{\ugafontc}

\newfontface{\ugd}{\ugafontd}

\newfontface{\uge}{\ugafonte}

\newfontface{\ugf}{\ugafontf}

\newfontface{\ugg}{\ugafontg}

\newfontface{\ugh}{\ugafonth}

%=====================================

\newcommand\uwscolour{red}

\newcommand\ualpa{πŽ€}

\newcommand\ubeta{𐎁}

\newcommand\ugamla{πŽ‚}

\newcommand\ukha{πŽƒ}

\newcommand\udelta{πŽ„}

\newcommand\uho{πŽ…}

\newcommand\uwo{πŽ†}

\newcommand\uzeta{πŽ‡}

\newcommand\uhota{𐎈}

\newcommand\utet{πŽ‰}

\newcommand\uyod{𐎊}

\newcommand\ukaf{πŽ‹}

\newcommand\ushin{𐎌}

\newcommand\ulamda{𐎍}

\newcommand\umem{𐎎}

\newcommand\udhal{𐎏}

\newcommand\unun{𐎐}

\newcommand\uzu{πŽ‘}

\newcommand\usamka{πŽ’}

\newcommand\uain{πŽ“}

\newcommand\upu{πŽ”}

\newcommand\usade{πŽ•}

\newcommand\uqopa{πŽ–}

\newcommand\urasha{πŽ—}

\newcommand\uthanna{𐎘}

\newcommand\ughain{πŽ™}

\newcommand\uto{𐎚}

\newcommand\ui{πŽ›}

\newcommand\uu{𐎜}

\newcommand\ussu{𐎝}

%\newcommand\uws{𐎟}

\newcommand\uws{{\color{\uwscolour}{𐎟}}}

\newcommand\utextsize{\huge}

\newcommand\ugaritic[3]{% font size text

{#1 #2 #3}

}

\newcommand\UgariticName{\uu\ugamla\ualpa\urasha\ui\utet\uws\ugamla\ualpa\uws}

\newcommand\utransltit{%

\def\ualpa{'}%

\def\ubeta{b}%

\def\ugamla{g}%

\def\ukha{αΈ«}%

\def\udelta{d}%

\def\uho{h}%

\def\uwo{w}%

\def\uzeta{z}%

\def\uhota{αΈ₯}%

\def\utet{αΉ­}%

\def\uyod{y}%

\def\ukaf{k}%

\def\ushin{Ε›}%

\def\ulamda{l}%

\def\umem{m}%

\def\udhal{ḏ}%

\def\unun{n}%

\def\uzu{αΊ“}%

\def\usamka{s}%

\def\uain{`}%

\def\upu{p}%

\def\usade{αΉ£}%

\def\uqopa{q}%

\def\urasha{r}%

\def\uthanna{αΉ―}%

\def\ughain{Δ‘}%

\def\uto{t}%

\def\ui{i}%

\def\uu{u}%

\def\ussu{ss}%

%\def\uws{:}%

\def\uws{{\color{\uwscolour}{:}}\space}%

}

\newcommand\ugalphabet{%

\ualpa \ %

\ubeta \ %

\ugamla \ %

\ukha \ %

\udelta \ %

\uho \ %

\uwo \ %

\uzeta \ %

\uhota \ %

\utet \ %

\uyod \ %

\ukaf \ %

\ushin \ %

\ulamda \ %

\umem \ %

\udhal \ %

\unun \ %

\uzu \ %

\usamka \ %

\uain \ %

\upu \ %

\usade \ %

\uqopa \ %

\urasha \ %

\uthanna \ %

\ughain \ %

\uto \ %

\ui \ %

\uu \ %

\ussu \ %

\uws \ %

}

\newcommand\utexttrans[1]{%

\ugaritic{\ugh}{\large}{#1} (%

\textit{\utransltit{#1}}) %

}

%=====================================

\title{Ugaritic Script}

\author{xxx}

\date{11 November 2017: Saturday 11:30pm}

\begin{document}

\maketitle

\tableofcontents

\section{Ugaritic}

Ugaritic script, {\uga πŽ€πŽπŽ‚πŽƒπŽ„πŽ…πŽ†πŽ‡πŽˆπŽ‰πŽŠπŽ‹πŽŒπŽπŽŽπŽ}, is in Unicode. Fonts covering the Ugaritic Unicode range are: Aegean, Andagii, Code2003, FreeSans, K1FS (same shape and size as FreeSans), MPH 2B Damase, Noto Sans Ugaritic,and Quivira.

\par Using {\ugaritic{\ugb}{}{\UgariticName}} (\textit{\utransltit{\UgariticName}}) as sample text:

\vskip1.5em

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\uga}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Aegean,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugb}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Andagii,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugc}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Code2003,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugd}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} FreeSans,

%\par\noindent \ugaritic{\uge}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} K1FS,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugf}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} MPH 2B Damase,
\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugg}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Noto Sans Ugaritic,
\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugh}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} and Quivira.

\section{The Alphabet}
\par \ugaritic{\ugf}{\large}{\ugalphabet}

\par \textit{\utransltit{\ugalphabet}}

\par \utexttrans{\UgariticName}

\par xxx xxx xxx

\end{document}

Note that the bulk code and long lists were copy-pasted from Excel, being created using the CONCATENATE function to build up strings from substrings. No use (mis)typing miles of coding if a click or two is available.

***

 

LaTeX, treasure cave

Have discovered the joys of typesetting. Specifically, the XeLaTeX incarnation of LaTeX: it can understand Unicode, and can access any fonts installed on the system. Plus its code is expandable, and user-written packages extend its functionality and abilities.

Latex et al. (the tex part is from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, craft”, meaning both skill of mind and skill of hand) has maths typesetting at its core.

 

maths

Using suitable packages if required (and there are thousands), you can do papers on more maths:

venn

isotopes:

isotope

(and even, on the Arts Faculty side, smugcat)

 

Mazes:

maze

Chess games (of course), step-by-step

chess

.

 

There are a whole bunch of linguistics-related packages.

For syntax trees and glosses:

linguistics

Glosses in other scripts:

glossing

Playful stuff:

censor

and

roundbox

And so on.

ancient

(As an aside, learning cuneiform must have taken ages at school, not to mention if you were Babylonian and had to go to Ancient Sumerian classes!)

There’s a package called manuscript, designed for emulating the old-style typewriter-written theses, which must have been written for LaTeX in the old days, I think. Now, with XeLaTeX, with its access to any and all installed fonts, one line of code (selecting a typewriter font) is all that is needed for emulating an old-style thesis.

Well, almost. Using the underline command, produces a nice, typeset line, which contrasts with the font (Urania Czech, in this case):

 

underline2

But with the old typewriters, you could backspace, and use the _ key (or the X key for typing errors, before liquid paper was invented):

 

overstrike

And of course, some typewriter ribbons were red-and-black (never found out what the red ink was used for).

 

Lots of fun.

 

 

 

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Addendum 27-Aug-2017: corrected spelling to: XeLaTeX.