Ugaritic

Typesetting Adventures

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ugaritic

Typing characters that are not on the standard keyboard can be done if you are willing and able to: (a) create your own custom keyboard layouts; or (b) wait for someone else to (for a fee) upgrade and enhance their word processor program to cater for the new characters; or (c) use Latex (in particular, xelatex) and define your own mnemonic macros and then use them in your essay/report/thesis/paper.

e.g.,

\newcommand\ualpa{πŽ€}
\newcommand\ubeta{𐎁}
\newcommand\ugamla{πŽ‚}

And macros within macros, to your heart’s content.

***

Here’s an example tex document, showing how the image snippet at the start was created. (You’ll need Noto Sans Ugaritic font, or similar, to display the Ugaritic characters – they are in Unicode).

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage{fontspec}

\setmainfont{Cambria}

\usepackage{xcolor}

\newcommand\ugafonta{Aegean}

\newcommand\ugafontb{Andagii}

\newcommand\ugafontc{Code2003}

\newcommand\ugafontd{FreeSans}

\newcommand\ugafonte{K1FS}

\newcommand\ugafontf{MPH 2B Damase}

\newcommand\ugafontg{Noto Sans Ugaritic}

\newcommand\ugafonth{Quivira.otf}

\newfontface{\uga}{\ugafonta}

\newfontface{\ugb}{\ugafontb}

\newfontface{\ugc}{\ugafontc}

\newfontface{\ugd}{\ugafontd}

\newfontface{\uge}{\ugafonte}

\newfontface{\ugf}{\ugafontf}

\newfontface{\ugg}{\ugafontg}

\newfontface{\ugh}{\ugafonth}

%=====================================

\newcommand\uwscolour{red}

\newcommand\ualpa{πŽ€}

\newcommand\ubeta{𐎁}

\newcommand\ugamla{πŽ‚}

\newcommand\ukha{πŽƒ}

\newcommand\udelta{πŽ„}

\newcommand\uho{πŽ…}

\newcommand\uwo{πŽ†}

\newcommand\uzeta{πŽ‡}

\newcommand\uhota{𐎈}

\newcommand\utet{πŽ‰}

\newcommand\uyod{𐎊}

\newcommand\ukaf{πŽ‹}

\newcommand\ushin{𐎌}

\newcommand\ulamda{𐎍}

\newcommand\umem{𐎎}

\newcommand\udhal{𐎏}

\newcommand\unun{𐎐}

\newcommand\uzu{πŽ‘}

\newcommand\usamka{πŽ’}

\newcommand\uain{πŽ“}

\newcommand\upu{πŽ”}

\newcommand\usade{πŽ•}

\newcommand\uqopa{πŽ–}

\newcommand\urasha{πŽ—}

\newcommand\uthanna{𐎘}

\newcommand\ughain{πŽ™}

\newcommand\uto{𐎚}

\newcommand\ui{πŽ›}

\newcommand\uu{𐎜}

\newcommand\ussu{𐎝}

%\newcommand\uws{𐎟}

\newcommand\uws{{\color{\uwscolour}{𐎟}}}

\newcommand\utextsize{\huge}

\newcommand\ugaritic[3]{% font size text

{#1 #2 #3}

}

\newcommand\UgariticName{\uu\ugamla\ualpa\urasha\ui\utet\uws\ugamla\ualpa\uws}

\newcommand\utransltit{%

\def\ualpa{'}%

\def\ubeta{b}%

\def\ugamla{g}%

\def\ukha{αΈ«}%

\def\udelta{d}%

\def\uho{h}%

\def\uwo{w}%

\def\uzeta{z}%

\def\uhota{αΈ₯}%

\def\utet{αΉ­}%

\def\uyod{y}%

\def\ukaf{k}%

\def\ushin{Ε›}%

\def\ulamda{l}%

\def\umem{m}%

\def\udhal{ḏ}%

\def\unun{n}%

\def\uzu{αΊ“}%

\def\usamka{s}%

\def\uain{`}%

\def\upu{p}%

\def\usade{αΉ£}%

\def\uqopa{q}%

\def\urasha{r}%

\def\uthanna{αΉ―}%

\def\ughain{Δ‘}%

\def\uto{t}%

\def\ui{i}%

\def\uu{u}%

\def\ussu{ss}%

%\def\uws{:}%

\def\uws{{\color{\uwscolour}{:}}\space}%

}

\newcommand\ugalphabet{%

\ualpa \ %

\ubeta \ %

\ugamla \ %

\ukha \ %

\udelta \ %

\uho \ %

\uwo \ %

\uzeta \ %

\uhota \ %

\utet \ %

\uyod \ %

\ukaf \ %

\ushin \ %

\ulamda \ %

\umem \ %

\udhal \ %

\unun \ %

\uzu \ %

\usamka \ %

\uain \ %

\upu \ %

\usade \ %

\uqopa \ %

\urasha \ %

\uthanna \ %

\ughain \ %

\uto \ %

\ui \ %

\uu \ %

\ussu \ %

\uws \ %

}

\newcommand\utexttrans[1]{%

\ugaritic{\ugh}{\large}{#1} (%

\textit{\utransltit{#1}}) %

}

%=====================================

\title{Ugaritic Script}

\author{xxx}

\date{11 November 2017: Saturday 11:30pm}

\begin{document}

\maketitle

\tableofcontents

\section{Ugaritic}

Ugaritic script, {\uga πŽ€πŽπŽ‚πŽƒπŽ„πŽ…πŽ†πŽ‡πŽˆπŽ‰πŽŠπŽ‹πŽŒπŽπŽŽπŽ}, is in Unicode. Fonts covering the Ugaritic Unicode range are: Aegean, Andagii, Code2003, FreeSans, K1FS (same shape and size as FreeSans), MPH 2B Damase, Noto Sans Ugaritic,and Quivira.

\par Using {\ugaritic{\ugb}{}{\UgariticName}} (\textit{\utransltit{\UgariticName}}) as sample text:

\vskip1.5em

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\uga}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Aegean,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugb}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Andagii,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugc}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Code2003,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugd}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} FreeSans,

%\par\noindent \ugaritic{\uge}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} K1FS,

\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugf}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} MPH 2B Damase,
\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugg}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} Noto Sans Ugaritic,
\par\noindent \ugaritic{\ugh}{\utextsize}{\UgariticName} and Quivira.

\section{The Alphabet}
\par \ugaritic{\ugf}{\large}{\ugalphabet}

\par \textit{\utransltit{\ugalphabet}}

\par \utexttrans{\UgariticName}

\par xxx xxx xxx

\end{document}

Note that the bulk code and long lists were copy-pasted from Excel, being created using the CONCATENATE function to build up strings from substrings. No use (mis)typing miles of coding if a click or two is available.

***

 

Scambling

and switching on paragraph numbers

Legal writing (like judgments) has numbered paragraphs, for detailed pin-pointing of information, and the occasional (unnumbered) heading. Headings help a bit, especially in long judgments, but since they are an interpretation of the structure of the reasoning and not the interpretation of the structure, headings take on an ancillary role only, as an aid to navigation.

There are numerous ways to achieve numbered paragraphing: making the document one giant enumerated list, with each paragraph being an item in the list, is one way (simplistic, but workable).

Another way is to count the paragraphs.

Latex by default has numbered headings and unnumbered paragraphs. To re-style it into legal mode, a paragraph counter can be created, say something like \p, to keep it short to save typing:

 

%Numbered paragraphs
\newcounter{parno}[paragraph]%% numbered paragraph
\renewcommand{\theparno}{\arabic{parno}}
\newcommand{\p}{\stepcounter{parno}\noindent[\theparno]\ } 
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{4}

This switches off paragraph first-line indenting, puts square brackets around the number, and adds a space after it.

To stop numbers like 1.1.1.1 appearing (paragraph numbers are the fourth level down), the paragraph number can be de-linked from the level numbering coming in from one level above:

 

%delink paragraph counter from being reset by subsubsection
\usepackage{chngcntr}
\counterwithout{paragraph}{subsubsection}
\renewcommand{\theparagraph}{\S\arabic{paragraph}}

 

And headings (meaning sections, in the case of an article document-class) can have their numbering switched off by setting to nothing (being {}):

 

%remove (printing of) section numbering
\renewcommand\thesection{}

 

numpar


 

Got vertical text working: for Japanese (using the lualatex-ja package, compiled under lualatex, rather than xelatex), going right-to-left. And ruby-text (furigana):jvert

 

Vertical also works for Chinese characters, of course.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

And Mongolian or Manchu, under the mls package (which gives MonTeX), besides Cyrillic and Roman scripts, can do vertical too, left-to-right:

 

m

 


 

Shades of meaning

Painters have an exercise to stretch their skills: painting an egg on a piece of paper. Uses up a lot of titanium white. The legal equivalent , in comparative law/translation, would be trying to render the phrase ‘common law’, and its near-equivalent and simultaneous not-equivalent “droit commun”, from French into English.

Here is Carbasse (via a quote typeset in Latex, to capture the visuality of the original printing):

carbasse1

carbasse_fn

In French, the phrase “common law” has a shade of meaning and a perspective (and field of denotation) that it does not have in English, and “droit commun”, as a (knowing) near-miss gloss, does not exactly mean ‘common law’ (in connotation) like a literal translation of ‘droit commun’ would sound like it would give. The Paris perspective of London.

Almost the linguistic equivalent of an Escher knot.

 


 

scambling

(Image from GoogleBooks)

 

And he [the Chief Justice] said, upon the observation upon 4 Mod. see the inconveniencies of these scambling reports, they will make us appear to posterity for a parcel of blockheads.

Once there was a law report of a case (Hodge v Clare), which seemed to be saying that pleading that a party was, in modern terms, ‘absent’, did not necessarily mean ‘absent outside of the jurisdiction’, like all other cases had confirmed up until that time.Β  But the law report itself was found at fault, because:

upon search of the roll in that case [the official parchment roll recording the case], there is a full averment, that the person, during whose absence, was in partibus transmarinis [in parts overseas], and no ground for the objection.

Hence Holt CJ’s observation about ‘these scambling reports’. – Slater v May, 2 Lord Raymond 1071.

Would we perhaps call it a ‘fake report’, nowadays?

 


 

With the colored letttrine Latex package, and a suitable font like EB Garamond, which has empty decorative initials (acting like a background) and separate foreground letters, interesting effects can be achieved:

ouat

Similar effects could be achieved with CSS in HTML, but printing commands can do optical effects like lensing, and it will probably be a while before such things are coded up as standard-issue into browsers.

 

pstlens

Vita is indeed brevis, and art longa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LaTeX, treasure cave

Have discovered the joys of typesetting. Specifically, the XeLaTeX incarnation of LaTeX: it can understand Unicode, and can access any fonts installed on the system. Plus its code is expandable, and user-written packages extend its functionality and abilities.

Latex et al. (the tex part is from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, craft”, meaning both skill of mind and skill of hand) has maths typesetting at its core.

 

maths

Using suitable packages if required (and there are thousands), you can do papers on more maths:

venn

isotopes:

isotope

(and even, on the Arts Faculty side, smugcat)

 

Mazes:

maze

Chess games (of course), step-by-step

chess

.

 

There are a whole bunch of linguistics-related packages.

For syntax trees and glosses:

linguistics

Glosses in other scripts:

glossing

Playful stuff:

censor

and

roundbox

And so on.

ancient

(As an aside, learning cuneiform must have taken ages at school, not to mention if you were Babylonian and had to go to Ancient Sumerian classes!)

There’s a package called manuscript, designed for emulating the old-style typewriter-written theses, which must have been written for LaTeX in the old days, I think. Now, with XeLaTeX, with its access to any and all installed fonts, one line of code (selecting a typewriter font) is all that is needed for emulating an old-style thesis.

Well, almost. Using the underline command, produces a nice, typeset line, which contrasts with the font (Urania Czech, in this case):

 

underline2

But with the old typewriters, you could backspace, and use the _ key (or the X key for typing errors, before liquid paper was invented):

 

overstrike

And of course, some typewriter ribbons were red-and-black (never found out what the red ink was used for).

 

Lots of fun.

 

 

 

===

Addendum 27-Aug-2017: corrected spelling to: XeLaTeX.